The BMVC2016 paper Video Stream Retrieval of Unseen Queries using Semantic Memory by Spencer Cappallo, Thomas Mensink and Cees Snoek is now available. Retrieval of live, user-broadcast video streams is an under-addressed and increasingly relevant challenge. The on-line nature of the problem requires temporal evaluation and the unforeseeable scope of potential queries motivates an approach which can accommodate arbitrary search queries. To account for the breadth of possible queries, we adopt a no-example approach to query retrieval, which uses a query’s semantic relatedness to pre-trained concept classifiers. To adapt to shifting video content, we propose memory pooling and memory welling methods that favor recent information over long past content. We identify two stream retrieval tasks, instantaneous retrieval at any particular time and continuous retrieval over a prolonged duration, and propose means for evaluating them. Three large scale video datasets are adapted to the challenge of stream retrieval. We report results for our search methods on the new stream retrieval tasks, as well as demonstrate their efficacy in a traditional, non-streaming video task.
The best paper of ICMR2016 entitled “Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples” by Svetlana Kordumova, Thomas Mensink and Cees Snoek is now available. In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object classifiers. To steer the knowledge transfer between objects and scenes we learn a semantic embedding with the aid of a large social multimedia corpus. Our key contributions are: we are the first to investigate pooling over ten thousand object classifiers to recognize scenes without examples; we explore the ontological hierarchy of objects and analyze the influence of object classifiers from different hierarchy levels; we exploit object positions in scene images and we demonstrate a new scene retrieval scenario with complex queries. Finally, we outperform attribute representations on two challenging scene datasets, SUNAttributes and Places2.
The ICMR2016 paper “The ImageNet Shuffle: Reorganized Pre-training for Video Event Detection” by Pascal Mettes, Dennis Koelma and Cees Snoek is now available. This paper strives for video event detection using a representation learned from deep convolutional neural networks. Different from the leading approaches, who all learn from the 1,000 classes defined in the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge, we investigate how to leverage the complete ImageNet hierarchy for pre-training deep networks. To deal with the problems of over-specific classes and classes with few images, we introduce a bottom-up and top-down approach for reorganization of the ImageNet hierarchy based on all its 21,814 classes and more than 14 million images. Experiments on the TRECVID Multimedia Event Detection 2013 and 2015 datasets show that video representations derived from the layers of a deep neural network pre-trained with our reorganized hierarchy i) improves over standard pre-training, ii) is complementary among different reorganizations, iii) maintains the benefits of fusion with other modalities, and iv) leads to state-of-the-art event detection results. The reorganized hierarchies and their derived Caffe models are publicly available at http://tinyurl.com/imagenetshuffle.
The ICCV 2015 paper Objects2action: Classifying and localizing actions without any video example by Mihir Jain, Jan van Gemert, Thomas Mensink and Cees Snoek is now available. The goal of this paper is to recognize actions in video without the need for examples. Different from traditional zero-shot approaches we do not demand the design and specification of attribute classifiers and class-to-attribute mappings to allow for transfer from seen classes to unseen classes. Our key contribution is objects2action, a semantic word embedding that is spanned by a skip-gram model of thousands of object categories. Action labels are assigned to an object encoding of unseen video based on a convex combination of action and object affinities. Our semantic embedding has three main characteristics to accommodate for the specifics of actions. First, we propose a mechanism to exploit multiple-word descriptions of actions and objects. Second, we incorporate the automated selection of the most responsive objects per action. And finally, we demonstrate how to extend our zero-shot approach to the spatio-temporal localization of actions in video. Experiments on four action datasets demonstrate the potential of our approach.
The ICCV 2015 paper Active Transfer Learning with Zero-Shot Priors: Reusing Past Datasets for Future Tasks by Efstratios Gavves, Thomas Mensink, Tatiana Tommasi, Cees Snoek and Tinne Tuytelaars is now available. How can we reuse existing knowledge, in the form of available datasets, when solving a new and apparently unrelated target task from a set of unlabeled data? In this work we make a first contribution to answer this question in the context of image classification. We frame this quest as an active learning problem and use zero-shot classifiers to guide the learning process by linking the new task to the existing classifiers. By revisiting the dual formulation of adaptive SVM, we reveal two basic conditions to choose greedily only the most relevant samples to be annotated. On this basis we propose an effective active learning algorithm which learns the best possible target classification model with minimum human labeling effort. Extensive experiments on two challenging datasets show the value of our approach compared to the state-of-the-art active learning methodologies, as well as its potential to reuse past datasets with minimal effort for future tasks.
The ACM Multimedia paper Image2Emoji: Zero-shot Emoji Prediction for Visual Media by Spencer Cappallo, Thomas Mensink, and Cees Snoek is now available. We present Image2Emoji, a multi-modal approach for generating emoji labels for an image in a zero-shot manner. Different from existing zero-shot image-to-text approaches, we exploit both image and textual media to learn a semantic embedding for the new task of emoji prediction. We propose that the widespread adoption of emoji suggests a semantic universality which is well-suited for interaction with visual media. We quantify the efficacy of our proposed model on the MSCOCO dataset, and demonstrate the value of visual, textual and multi-modal prediction of emoji. We conclude the paper with three examples of the application potential of emoji in the context of multimedia retrieval.
The BMVC2015 paper entitled APT: Action localization proposals from dense trajectories by Jan van Gemert, Mihir Jain, Ella Gati and Cees Snoek is now available. This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to represent videos during classification. Our Action localization Proposals from dense Trajectories (APT) use an efficient proposal generation algorithm to handle the high number of trajectories in a video. Our spatio-temporal proposals are faster than current methods and outperform the localization and classification accuracy of current proposals on the UCF Sports, UCF 101, and MSR-II video datasets.
The BMVC2015 paper entitled Event Fisher Vectors: Robust Encoding Visual Diversity of Visual Streams by Markus Nagel, Thomas Mensink and Cees Snoek is now available. In this paper we focus on event recognition in visual image streams. More specifically, we aim to construct a compact representation which encodes the diversity of the visual stream from just a few observations. For this purpose, we introduce the Event Fisher Vector, a Fisher Kernel based representation to describe a collection of images or the sequential frames of a video. We explore different generative models beyond the Gaussian mixture model as underlying probability distribution. First, the Student?s-t mixture model which captures the heavy tails of the small sample size of a collection of images. Second, Hidden Markov Models to explicitly capture the temporal ordering of the observations in a stream. For all our models we derive analytical approximations of the Fisher information matrix, which significantly improves recognition performance. We extensively evaluate the properties of our proposed method on three recent datasets for event recognition in photo collections and web videos, leading to an efficient compact image representation which achieves state-of-the-art performance on all these datasets.