The paper “Repetition Estimation” by Tom Runia, Cees Snoek and Arnold Smeulders has been accepted by the International Journal of Computer Vision. The paper studies visual repetition. Visual repetition is ubiquitous in our world. It appears in human activity (sports, cooking), animal behavior (a bee’s waggle dance), natural phenomena (leaves in the wind) and in urban environments (flashing lights). Estimating visual repetition from realistic video is challenging as periodic motion is rarely perfectly static and stationary. To better deal with realistic video, we elevate the static and stationary assumptions often made by existing work. Our spatiotemporal filtering approach, established on the theory of periodic motion, effectively handles a wide variety of appearances and requires no learning. Starting from motion in 3D we derive three periodic motion types by decomposition of the motion field into its fundamental components. In addition, three temporal motion continuities emerge from the field’s temporal dynamics. For the 2D perception of 3D motion we consider the viewpoint relative to the motion; what follows are 18 cases of recurrent motion perception. To estimate repetition under all circumstances, our theory implies constructing a mixture of differential motion maps. We temporally convolve the motion maps with wavelet filters to estimate repetitive dynamics. Our method is able to spatially segment repetitive motion directly from the temporal filter responses densely computed over the motion maps. For experimental verification of our claims, we use our novel dataset for repetition estimation, better-reflecting reality with non-static and non-stationary repetitive motion. On the task of repetition counting, we obtain favorable results compared to a deep learning alternative.